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Markets, Access, and Consumption Terms

Marketing Terms


Authenticity:  Refers to sharing honest information and stories about the farm/ranch, products, production processes, ingredients and the values and motivations of people involved in the farm or food business.

Agritourism:  Agricultural-related activities that bring visitors to a farm or ranch for recreational purposes.  May include tours, farm stays, hands-on classes, hay rides, on-farm meals, harvest festivals etc.

Culinary Tourism:  Food tourism or gastronomy with the purpose of the exploration of food.  An increasingly vital component of tourism experiences, culinary tourism includes the what, how, where and when of eating and drinking.

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA):  A seasonal agricultural subscription where customers pay farmers up front for a share of the harvest. They then receive a bag or box of produce and other farm products on a weekly basis throughout the growing season. CSAs vary on number of weeks, price, variety of products and delivery method.  Some include work on the farm in exchange for food. 

Direct Marketing:  Sales from a farmer/producer direct to the consumer. Farmers sell direct to consumers at farmers markets, food stands, U-pick operations, through CSAs and on-line markets.  

Ecotourism:  Tourism that tends to support conservation of the natural environment, environmental awareness, sustainable/low-impact travel and support for local communities and local cultures.

Farm-to-School:  Local farmers sell directly to individual schools or school district food service programs.  Provides market opportunities for farmers and fresh healthy foods for students.  Also refers to a broader spectrum of efforts to connect local food and agriculture with schools, teachers and students including school gardens.

Farm-to-Institution:  Farm sales direct to institutional food service providers including hospitals, college/university food contractors, and business campuses.

Intermediated Markets:  Farmers also sell direct to restaurants and natural food co-ops/ grocery stores or through a farmer-owned, regional food distribution cooperative.  These are often called intermediated markets or referred to as semi-direct sales because they is still one layer away from consumer or end-buyer. 

Transparency:  Honest and open communications about the practices used in producing, processing and transporting local and regionally grown food and farm products.

Wholesale:  Lower prices are offered through a distributor for potentially larger quantities or on an ongoing basis, such as for restaurants, institutions or stores before products reach the end-user.   May also include sales of larger quantities to a food processor.

Winter Markets:  Farmers markets that operate at least once during the winter months (November and March in the US).

Food Access Terms


Community Food Security:  "Community food security is a condition in which all community residents obtain a safe, culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate diet through a sustainable food system that maximizes community self-reliance and social justice."

Food Access:  Consumer choices are likely to be influenced by the spatial accessibility and affordability of food.  Factors affecting food access include price, transportation, travel time to shopping, and local availability of healthy foods.

Food Desert:  These food deserts are areas where people have limited access to a variety of healthy and affordable food.  As of 2012, the USDA’s Economic Research Service identified approximately
6,500 food desert tracts in the United States based on 2000 Census and 2006 data on locations of supermarkets, supercenters, and large grocery stores. (www.

Food Insecurity:  USDA defines food insecurity as "a lack of consistent access to enough food for an active, healthy life."  Food insecurity is a complex issue that results from a lack of availability or resources to obtain food and co-exists along with other issues affecting low-income individuals and families.  Food insecurity can range from uncertainty regarding one's ability to obtain food to compromising on food quality and variety to reducing food quantity (skipping meals) to not having food for a day or more.

Food Security:  USDA’s definition of food security is, “access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life.”  Food security comprises several different components, including food access, distribution of food, the stability of the food supply, availability of culturally appropriate foods and the use of food. May be discussed in number of days of food supply.

Gleaning:  Collecting leftover crops after the main harvest on commercial farms, also collecting/harvesting donated fruits and vegetables from urban fruit trees, home and community gardens.

Market Bucks/Market Dollars:  Farmers market programs that provide SNAP program participants with a dollar match to purchase locally grown fruits, vegetables and vegetable starts at market. Available at many Idaho farmers markets. 

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Programs (SFMNP):  Provides low-income seniors with coupons to access locally grown fruits, vegetables, honey and herbs at farmers markets, roadside stands and community supported agriculture (CSA) programs.  Funding is provided by the the USDA Food and Nutrition Service to states, U.S. territories, and federally-recognized Indian tribal governments.  Not available in Idaho.

Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP):  Food stamps were renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP in 2008. A growing number of farmers markets are equipped with the technology to accept SNAP benefits through Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT). The EBT system authorizes the transfer of government SNAP benefits from a federal account to a retailer account to pay for fresh foods. 

Women, Infants, and Children Farmers Market Nutrition Program (WIC FMNP):  Provides coupons to eligible low-income women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, and/or caring for children up to five years old who are found to be at nutritional risk. In some states, coupons may be used to buy fresh fruits and vegetables from farmers, farmers markets or roadside stands that have been approved by the state agency. Funding for the WIC FMNP is provided by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service to states, U.S. territories, and federally-recognized Indian tribal governments.  Not available in Idaho.


Consumption Terms

Hunger:  A personal, physical sensation of discomfort or physical pain caused by insufficient food consumption.  Can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term).

Locavore:  A person who eats locally-grown food whenever possible.

Geo-Tourists:  Travelers interested in nature, culture and heritage tourism.

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