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Podcast Notes

Learn more about the people, literature, and language mentioned in the Inland Northwest Artisan Grains™ podcast series by browsing the page or clicking on the section title to be taken directly there.

Language

People

Literature

 

Language

Artisan Grains: artisan grains are varieties of cereal crops that are differentiated from conventional grains because of a specific attribute that they possess (i.e. high nutritional value, regenerative cultivation practices, etc).  These grains are generally not grown for commodity markets and includes grain subsets such as landraces and ancient grains.  

Binder: a farm implement designed to cut and bind grain crops into bundles.  The implement ties the bundles with twine or wire  These bundles are then hung to dry so that they can be threshed.

Carbon Neutral: achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by offsetting one's carbon emissions with actions that reduce one's carbon emissions, so that the net greenhouse gas emitted into the atmosphere is zero. 

Grist Mill: a grist mill is a water-powered mill that grinds corn and wheat into flour using two stones: a bed stone and a runner stone.  The space between the two stone can be adjusted to mill grains of different sizes and produce flours of different textures.  Historically, grist mills were located at the center of town and, at their height, about 350 existed in the United States.

Hammer Mill:  hammer mills work to mill whole grains into flour by pulverizing them by hitting them repeatedly with spinning metal rectangles (or hammers) until they reach the desired texture.  The grain berry is entered into a chamber, where it is repeatedly hit by a spinning, metal gear until it reaches a fine enough grind that it can fit through a mesh filter.  

Heritage Grains: "Heritage grains are varieties of wheat, rye, barley and oats that were grown before the introduction of intensive, scientific plant breeding in the early 1900s" (Heritage Grains Trust).

Landrace Grains:  landrace grains are "ancient pre-hybridized varieties ("races") of wheat, barley, oats, rye, and other grains that flourished since time immemorial in areas ("lands") throughout the world where they adapted to local environmental conditions" (Palouse Heritage).

No-Till Drill: a no-till drill is a farm implement that creates planting lines by cutting through the soil with a series of disks.  It then plants a seed at a programmed depth and covers the seed with soil.  No-till drills are beneficial because they allow farmers to plant seed into a field with previous crop residue, ensuring that there is always vegetation in a field and reducing erosion. 

Pellet Mill:  a pellet mill is a piece of machinery that presses biomass into a pellet form.  In the context of grains, it takes leftover grain product and presses it into a pellet form that can be used as fuel or as a milling byproduct that can be fed to livestock.

Phenotypic plasticity: Phenotypic plasticity, usually thought of as an evolutionary adaptation, refers to the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments. 

Season 1, Episodes 2 and 3

Pull-type Swather:  a swather is a farm implement that cuts hay or grain crops and lays them into windrows.  These windrows allow the crop to dry to the appropriate degree necessary for harvest, processing, and storing. A pull-type swather is one pulled by a tractor, instead of driven independently. 

Regenerative agriculture:  Regenerative agriculture is a system of farming principles and practices that increase biodiversity, enrich soils, improve watershed, and enhance ecosystem services.  The goal of regenerative agriculture is to capture carbon in soil and above ground biomass.  Doing so will reverse climate change, increase yields, increase resilience to climate stability, improve health and increase the vitality of farming communities.  Read more about regenerative agriculture on Wikipedia.  

Season 1, Episode 3

Stone Mill: similar to a grist mill, a stone mill grinds whole berries into flour by using two overlaying stones.  Unlike a grist mill, a stone mill can be electric or gas powered, not water powered. 

The Grain Gathering:  the Grain Gathering is an event put on by The Bread Lab and Dr. Steven Jones at Washington State University.  This annual conference brings together bakers, growers, millers, chefs, cereal chemists, malters, and others interested in learning about different grain varieties and how to use them in their craft.

Thresher: a thresher is a piece of farm equipment that beats a harvested grain crop in order to remove the seeds from the stalks and the husk of the plant.  The separated seed can then be cleaned and processed.

People

Alan Scott, OvenCrafters - Australia 

Alan Scott was a blacksmith and baker that designed and built brick ovens.  He was passionate about the role ovens have in bringing communities together and has written many books on the topic including The Bread Builders: Hearth Loaves and Masonry Ovens.

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Albie Barden, Maine Wood Heat - Skowhegan, ME

Albie Barden and his wife Cheryl have done extensive research on global masonry heaters and oven traditions that could be utilized in New England and started a business building brick ovens.  This eventually expanded into wood fire ovens and formed the Maine Wood Heat Company in the early 2000s.  Albie is passionate about renewable energy, local food, and home grown family business, with his son, Scott, and daughter, Anna, joining the business in 2010. 

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Alice Waters, Chez Panisse - Berkeley, CA

Alice Waters is a chef, author, food activist, and owner of Chez Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, California where she has been a champion of local sustainable agriculture for over four decades. In 1995 she founded the Edible Schoolyard Project, which advocates for a free regenerative school lunch for all children and a sustainable food curriculum in every public school.

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Chad Robertson, Tartine Bakery - San Francisco, CA
Chad Robertson is founder of the Tartine Bakery, where he is baking loaves of bread “that provide honest nourishment through long fermentation and superlative ingredients.”  Their flours are milled in the Skagit Valley by people they trust to take as much care with the milling and growing as they do with the baking all because Chad believes that better grain equals better bread.

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Charles Finckel, Pike Brewing Company - Seattle, WA
Charles Finkel is an artist, writer, designer and entrepreneur from Seattle. He and his wife, Rose Ann, founded Pike Brewing Company in 1989. Beer writer Stephen Beaumont calls Charles, “no less than a legend in American beer circles.”

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Dave Miller, Miller's Bakehouse - Yankee Hill, CA
Dave Miller is the owner, proprietor, and baker at Miller's Bakehouse in Yankee Hill, California.  Dave uses whole grains, which he stone mills and bakes into bread loaves before the "aroma, flavor and nutrients dissipate." 

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Eduardo Morell, Morell's Bread - Berkeley, CA
Eduardo Morell is a baker that produces traditional sourdough bread out of an Alan Scott wood oven in Berkeley, California.  This baking philosophy emphasizes the role of small bakeries in providing your neighborhood and community with high-quality, local food.

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Harry Peemoeller, Johnson & Wales University - Charlotte, NC
Harry Peemoeller is a Professor of Bakery and Bread Studies at Johnson & Wales University in Charlotte, NC. Prior to joining the faculty of Johnson & Wales University, Mr. Peemoeller worked at various bakery operations in Europe and the United States.

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Horse Drawn Farm - Lopez Island, WA
Horse Drawn Farm is a farm that uses all power from draft horses to grow and harvest fresh vegetables and other produces, as well as tend to and process livestock.  Together with Island Grist and Grayling Farm, Horse Drawn Farm grows, threshes, and mills Lopez grown grains to produce flour for Barn Owl Bakery.

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Jill Clapperton, The Global Food and Farm Community - Olympia, WA

Dr. Jill Clapperton is the founder of the Global Food and Farm Online community, a "global social network that provides information and connection to help you understand the science, practice, and outcomes of improving soil health.  Jill is also the Principal Scientist and CEO of Rhizoterra Inc., an organization working to demonstrate and promote the link between healthy soils and the production of nutrient-dense food.  

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Keith Guisto, Central Milling - Logan, UT
Keith Guisto is a third generation baker and fourth generation miller, and the founder of Central Milling.  Keith has been involved in the world of baking since the late 1970s. He learned at an early age that a successful baker needs three things: quality ingredients, technical knowledge and a passion for baking.
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Kevin Morse, Cairnspring Mills - Burlington, WA

Kevin Morse started Cairnspring Mills in Burlington, Washington in 2016 to ensure local farmers remain financially viable, preserve the unique agricultural heritage of the Skagit Valley, to shorten the distance between farmer and customer, and build soil health. 

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Peter Reinhart - Sonoma, CA
Peter Reinhart is an American baker, educator and author. He is most known for writing Bread Revolution, American Pie: My Search for the Perfect Pizza, The Joy of Gluten-Free, Sugar-Free Baking and The Bread Baker’s Apprentice. Four of his books have been nominated for James Beard Awards, with three of them winning, including the “Book of the Year” in 2002 for The Bread Baker’s Apprentice.

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Sara Hessenflow Harper, Grounded Growth - Richmond, VA
Sara Hessenflow Harper is the founder and CEO of Grounded Growth, a membership-based company out of Richmond, Virginia that "provides the resources needed for food companies and farmers to research, develop and build regenerative supply chains together>'  She is passionate about using regenerative agriculture practices to revitalize soil health and mitigate climate change.  

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Stacie Kearney, Lucky Lady Bread Company - Spokane, WA
Stacie Kearney is a cottage baker running a market bakery out of Spokane, WA.  She has been baking bread for over eight years, and is particularly interested in baking traditions of past generations.  She is a Culture Keeper and member of the Oregon Trail Sourdough Starter Preservation Society, nourishing a starter with 1847 roots.  You can find her bread at various farmers markets in the Spokane area or order on her website for porch pick-up.  

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Steve Jones, The Bread Lab - Burlington, WA
Stephen Jones is a wheat breeder and the Director of the The Bread Lab.  Together with his graduate students he breeds wheat and other grains for local uses to be grown on small farms in the coastal West, the upper Northeast and other regions of the country. The Bread Lab is a combination think tank and baking laboratory where scientists, bakers, chefs, farmers, maltsters, brewers, distillers and millers experiment with improved flavor, nutrition and functionality of regional and obscure wheats, barley, other small grains and beans.

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Teri McKenzie, Inland Northwest Food Network - Coeur d'Alene, ID

Teri McKenzie is a local food advocate and founder of the Inland Northwest Food Network in 2014.  The Inland Northwest Food Network works to empower people through information and hands-on experience, hosting cooking classes, workshops on gardening and composting, an annual seed swap, public lectures from food systems experts, and regional farm tours.  Teri's goal is to create a "resilient, community food system that celebrates the cultural aspects of our region's food and promotes health for individuals, the local economy, and the environment."

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Tim Cornie, 1000 Springs Mill - Buhl, ID

Tim Cornie is a farmer and the co-owner of 1000 Springs Mill in Buhl, ID.  1000 Springs Mill produces locally owned, third generation organic and non-GMO grain and legume products that benefit their local community.  Tim and his business partners are pioneers of the local organic farming movement and are passionate about nourishing healthy soils because healthy soils create healthy food, which in turn means healthy people and a healthy future. 

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Tom Keller, The French Laundry - Yountville, CA
Thomas Keller is the chef and proprietor for The French Laundry in Yountville, California.  Thomas has earned numerous awards, including from the James Beard Foundation, gourmet magazines, the Mobil Guide (five stars), and the Michelin Guide (three stars).  Thomas’ commitment to high quality ingredients extends to his flour and grains, and he has his own blend of multi-purpose flour that is nutrient dense, gluten free, and dairy free.  
Learn more >
 

Wes Jackson, The Land Institute - Salina, KS
Wes Jackson is the founder and president emeritus of The Land Institute.  Wes is widely recognized as a leader in the international movement for a more sustainable agriculture. 

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Yvon Chouinard, Patagonia Inc. - Ventura, CA

Yvon Chouinard is a surfer, climber, and outdoor enthusiast who founded Patagonia in 1973.  Patagonia is known for its environmental activism and emphasis on land preservation.  Yvon has spoken publicly in favor of diversifying grain production and conserving soil.  

Learn more >

 

Literature

Berry, Wendell. http://www.wendellberrybooks.com/

  

Brown, G. (2018).  Dirt to Soil: One Family’s Journey Into Regenerative Agriculture. Hartford, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.   https://www.chelseagreen.com/product/dirt-to-soil/

  

Caballero, M., Amiri, S., Denney, J. T., Monsivais, P., Hystad, P., & Amram, O. (2018). Estimated Residential Exposure to Agricultural Chemicals and Premature Mortality by Parkinson’s Disease in Washington State. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(12), 2885. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122885

  

Kantor, S. (2015).  ‘A quiet crisis’: The rise of acidic soil in Washington.  Pullman, WA: CAHNRS News,

Crosscut.  https://crosscut.com/2015/08/a-quiet-crisis-the-rise-of-acidic-soil-in-washington

  

Kubsad, D., Nilsson, E. E., King, S. E., Sadler-Riggleman, I., Beck, D., & Skinner, M. K. (2019). Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology. Scientific reports, 9(1), 6372. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42860-0

Landrigan, P. J., Benbrook, C. (2015).  GMO’s, Herbicides, and Public Health.  The New England Journal to Medicine.  373: 693-695.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1505660

Montgomery, D.  (2017).  Growing a Revolution: Bringing Our Soil Back to Life.  New York City:  W. W. Norton & Company.  https://www.dig2grow.com/

Montgomery, D.  (2018).  Dirt to Soil: One Family’s Journey into Regenerative Agriculture.  Hartford, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.  https://www.chelseagreen.com/product/dirt-to-soil/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwgo_5BRDuARIsADDEntTH8FB2RzGwSLSF1v4zV5CGAK10a4kOFTi_0bwMTa8zkipoNb_uLLIaAjwqEALw_wcB

 

Pollan, M.  (2006).  The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.  Berkeley, CA:  Penguin Group, LLC.  https://michaelpollan.com/books/the-omnivores-dilemma/

 

Scheuerman, R., McGregor, A., Clement, J. (2013).  Harvest Heritage: Agricultural Origins and Heritage Crops of the Pacific Northwest. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press.  https://wsupress.wsu.edu/product/harvest-heritage/

 

Scheuerman, R., Adcock, R., Clement, J., McGregor, A. (2020). Hallowed Harvests: Agricultural Depiction in Literature and Art to Early Modern Times. Camano Island, WA: Coyote Hill Press. https://www.amazon.com/HALLOWED-HARVESTS-Agrarian-Depiction-Literature/dp/0991264185

 

Sorensen, E.  (2019).  WSU researchers see health effects across generations from popular weed killer.  Pullman, WA: WSU Insider. https://news.wsu.edu/2019/04/23/wsu-researchers-see-health-effects-across-generations-popular-weed-killer/

 

Xu, C., Kohler, A. T., Lenton, M. A., Svenning, J., Scheffer, M. (2020).  Future of the human climate niche.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  117 (21) 11350-11355.  https://www.pnas.org/content/117/21/11350/tab-article-info